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Title

Do gastroenterologists have medical inertia towards coeliac disease? A UK multicentre secondary care study

Author(s)

Naylor, Greg, M.

Year

2021

Abstract

Objective: This study aimed to assess if there is secondary care medical inertia towards coeliac disease (CD).
Design: Group (1): Time from primary care presentation to diagnostic endoscopy was quantified in 151 adult patients with a positive endomysial antibody test and compared with 92 adult patients with histologically proven inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Group (2): Across four hospitals, duodenal biopsy reports for suspected CD were reviewed (n=1423). Group (3): Clinical complexity was compared between known CD (n=102) and IBD (n=99) patients at their respective follow-up clinic appointments. Group (4): 50 gastroenterologists were questioned about their perspective on CD and IBD.
Results: Group (1): Suspected coeliac patients waited significantly longer for diagnostic endoscopy following referral (48.5 (28-89) days) than suspected patients with IBD (34.5 (18-70) days; p=0.003). Group (2): 1423 patients underwent diagnostic endoscopy for possible CD, with only 40.0% meeting guidelines to take four biopsies. Increased diagnosis of CD occurred if guidelines were followed (10.1% vs 4.6% p<0.0001). 12.4% of newly diagnosed CD patients had at least one non-diagnostic gastroscopy in the 5 years prior to diagnosis. Group (4): 32.0% of gastroenterologists failed to identify that CD has greater prevalence in adults than IBD. Moreover, 36.0% of gastroenterologists felt that doctors were not required for the management of CD.
Conclusion: Prolonged waiting times for endoscopy and inadequacies in biopsy technique were demonstrated suggesting medical inertia towards CD. However, this has to be balanced against rationalising care accordingly. A Coeliac UK National Patient Charter may standardise care across the UK.

Subjects

antiendomysial antibodies; coeliac disease; endoscopic procedures; gluten; inflammatory bowel disease

Title

Emergency treatment of bleeding hemorrhoids in a patient taking aspirin and clopidogrel using a 1470 nm diode laser and the ELITE minimal invasive technique

Author(s)

Papaioannou, Antigoni

Year

2020

Abstract

A 74-year-old male patient, receiving anticoagulation treatment after previous angioplasty stenting for severe coronary artery disease, was admitted to the clinic with a 2-day rectal bleeding. Clinical examination followed by an urgent colonoscopy to exclude other potential reasons for his symptoms both confirmed the diagnosis of Grade III thrombosed hemorrhoids. Due to the acute presentation of the case along with the existing medication of the patient, the decision was made to treat the problem using the expert laser intrahemorrhoidal therapy technique, which is a diode laser minimally invasive operation without the need to stop any of the patient's medication.

Subjects

Hemorrhoids; Laser Intrahemorrhoidal Therapy; Rectal Bleeding

Title

Association between gestational cannabis exposure and maternal, perinatal, placental, and childhood outcomes

Author(s)

Ayonrinde, Oyekunle

Year

2020

Abstract

Globally, the availability and formulations for the administration of cannabis are changing with decriminalization or legalization of recreational use in some jurisdictions, and the prescription of cannabis also occurring. These changes are likely to affect the prevalence of use, including by women of childbearing age. The effects of in utero and infant alcohol and tobacco exposure are well-documented, but the outcomes of cannabis exposure are less certain. The content of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of cannabis has progressively increased over several decades. This review explores the limited knowledge surrounding the epidemiology of gestational and postnatal cannabis exposure and implications for the mother-placenta-fetus/neonate triad. We examine cannabis' effects from antenatal and lactation exposure on (a) pregnancy and perinatal outcomes, (b) placental health, and (c) longer term cardiometabolic and neurodevelopmental risks and outcomes. Though definitive outcomes are lacking, gestational cannabis has been associated with increased risk of other substance use during pregnancy; impaired placental blood flow; increased risk of small for gestational age births; and associated complications. Childhood and adolescent outcomes are sparsely assessed, with suggested outcomes including increased risk of depression and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Cardiometabolic implications of gestational cannabis use may include maternal fatty liver, obesity, insulin resistance, and increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), with potential consequences for the fetus. Clinical implications for pediatric practice were explored in a bid to understand any potential risk or impact on child health and development.

Subjects

Cannabis; fetus; maternal; placenta; pregnancy.

Title

Adrenal haemorrhage as a complication of COVID-19 infection

Author(s)

Baxter, Conal Thomas.

Year

2020

Abstract

We report an unusual complication of COVID-19 infection in a 53-year-old Caucasian man. He presented with shortness of breath, fever and pleuritic chest pain. A CT pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) demonstrated acute bilateral pulmonary embolism and bilateral multifocal parenchymal ground glass change consistent with COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Right adrenal haemorrhage was suspected on the CTPA which was confirmed on triple-phase abdominal CT imaging. A short Synacthen test revealed normal adrenal function. He was treated initially with an intravenous heparin infusion, which was changed to apixaban with a planned outpatient review in 3 months' time. He made an uncomplicated recovery and was discharged. Follow-up imaging nearly 5 months later showed near complete resolution of the right adrenal haemorrhage with no CT evidence of an underlying adrenal lesion.

Subjects

adrenal disorders; infections; radiology

Title

Localised conjunctival AL-amyloid deposits secondary to a retinal detachment surgery radial explant

Author(s)

Stafanous, Sabah

Year

2020

Abstract

Purpose: To describe a hitherto unreported late ocular surface complication of retinal detachment surgery around a radial segment explant.

Methods: A single case report of a 72 year-old white Caucasian male, with a previous history of right scleral buckling surgery for retinal detachment surgery 25 years ago, presented with right-sided ptosis of 6 months duration.

Results: Ocular surface examination showed a prominent right supero-nasal quadrant radial segment explant, around which there was bulky pink conjunctival mass, extending from the supero-medial fornix down to the medial canthal area and inferior medial fornix with similar changes seen on the upper medial tarsal conjunctiva. The clinical differential diagnosis was either inflammation from an exposed radial explant or lymphoma. Biopsies of the conjunctival mass showed perivascular and interstitial solid eosinophilic deposits of amyloid, with scattered giant cells; the amyloid was of AL type. There was no morphological or immunohistochemical evidence of lymphoma or a plasma cell neoplasm in the specimen.

Conclusion: This is the first report of localised conjunctival amyloid deposition, secondary to a retinal detachment radial explant. It is proposed that the localised amyloid deposit arose from the ocular surface irritative effects of the radial explant.

Subjects

Retinal detachment; Surgery

Title

Glandular Odontogenic Cyst with Metaplastic Cartilage: Report of an Unusual Case and Literature Review

Author(s)

Karbhari, Bhavesh

Year

2020

Abstract

Glandular odontogenic cysts are rare odontogenic cysts with a wide range of histopathological features. In this paper we describe the clinical and pathological features of an unusual case of a glandular odontogenic cyst with metaplastic cartilage. The previous literature of odontogenic cysts presenting with metaplastic cartilage is reviewed alongside a discussion of the differential diagnoses. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of a glandular odontogenic cyst with metaplastic cartilage.

Subjects

Diagnosis; Glandular odontogenic cyst; Odontogenic cysts; Pathology.

Title

How to Create a Great Radiology Report

Author(s)

Bickle, Ian, C.

Year

2020

Abstract

The use of key principles when dictating radiology report findings, impressions, and recommendations helps radiologists create reports that are readily understood and that provide relevant, clear, and actionable information to advance patient care.
The radiology report represents the sum of a radiologist’s highest level of synthesis and insight into a patient’s condition. It is the most important product that radiologists generate to help direct patient care. Despite the self-evident importance of clear and effective radiology reporting, radiologists usually receive little or no formal reporting education during training. Instead, it is learned in a piecemeal and often indirect fashion through occasional correction and imitating the reports of other radiologists. The audience of the radiology report extends far beyond the ordering provider and includes patients and their families, medical support staff, subspecialty providers, other radiologists, and research interests. Creating a report that fulfills the needs of this diverse group is a formidable if not quixotic ambition. However, there are certain key principles to reporting the imaging findings, impression, and recommendations that serve as a guide and promote careful consideration about how reports are understood. The findings section should emphasize short, informative, and factual observations while avoiding inappropriate interpretation, excessive use of terms of perception, and redundancy. The impression is the thoughtful synthesis of the meaning of the findings leading to a diagnosis, a differential diagnosis, and management recommendations. Creating a clear and impactful impression allows radiologists to provide the highest level of clinical care and direction but takes time and effort beyond simply restating the findings. The impression should use language that is understandable, memorable, and actionable. Reporting skills require ongoing attention and must adapt to the evolving practice patterns and communication styles in medicine.

Subjects

Radiology; Reports

Title

Direct versus indirect laryngoscopy using a Macintosh video laryngoscope: a mannequin study comparing applied forces

Author(s)

Gordon, Joanna, K.

Year

2020

Abstract

Purpose: Upper airway injury and sympathetic activation may be related to the forces applied during laryngoscopy. We compared the applied forces during laryngoscopy using direct and indirect visualization of a standardized mannequin glottis.
Methods: Force transducers were applied to the concave surface of a GlideScope T-MAC Macintosh-style video laryngoscope that can also be used as a conventional direct-view laryngoscope. Thirty-four anesthesiologists performed four laryngoscopies (two direct and two indirect views) on an Ambu mannequin in a randomized sequence. During each laryngoscopy, participants were instructed to obtain views corresponding to > 80% and 50% of the glottic opening aperture. Peak and impulse forces were measured for each view.
Results: To achieve a 50% glottic opening view, the top 10th percentile force was higher with direct vs indirect laryngoscopy in terms of peak (difference, 9.1 newton; 99% confidence interval [CI], 7.4 to 13.9) and impulse (difference, 56.4 newton·sec; 99% CI, 49.0 to 81.7) forces. To achieve >80% view of the glottic opening, median force was higher with direct vs indirect laryngoscopy in terms of peak (difference, 3.6 newton; 99% CI, 1.6 to 7.3) and impulse (difference, 20.4 newton·sec; 99% CI, 11.7 to 35.1) forces.
Conclusions: In this mannequin study, lower forces applied during indirect vs direct laryngoscopy may reflect an advantage of video laryngoscopy, but additional studies using patients are required to confirm the clinical implications of these findings.

Subjects

Laryngoscopy; Anaesthesia

Title

'Conflict versus Congruence': A Qualitative Study Exploring the Experience of Gender Dysphoria for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Author(s)

Coleman-Smith, Rachel S.

Year

2020

Abstract

An emergent evidence base indicates a higher prevalence of autism exists amongst people attending gender identity clinics. This qualitative study explored adults' with autism experiences of coming to understand and address their gender dysphoria (GD). Data were collected and analysed using Grounded Theory. Ten adults with autism and GD undertook semi-structured interviews. A tentative theoretical framework of common processes involved in understanding and addressing GD for individuals with autism was developed. The experience is captured in the core category-Conflict versus Congruence. A key finding was the impact of autism as a barrier but sometimes a protective factor in participants' understanding and addressing GD. Participants appeared to achieve greater personal congruence and wellbeing upon transition. Nevertheless, conflicts remained as they navigated the social world with a continuing fear of hostility and sense of difference due to having two stigmatised identities.

Subjects

Autism; Gender dysphoria; Grounded theory; Qualitative.

Title

Lesson of the month 1: Prolonged QT syndrome due to donepezil: a reversible cause of falls?

Author(s)

Jackson, Emily, G

Year

2020

Abstract

Prolonged QT syndrome precipitates cardiac arrhythmias such as torsades de pointes (TdP) resulting in cardiogenic syncope or sudden death. We report a case of prolonged QT syndrome caused by donepezil which resulted in a fall and hip fracture. In this case female sex, advanced age and diuretic use may have increased the risk of recurrent syncope and potential underlying TdP. Cessation of donepezil resulted in normalisation of the QT interval. This case highlights a lesser known side effect of this dementia drug. It also reminds us of the importance of taking a thorough drug history while considering potential drug toxicity/interactions as part of the comprehensive geriatric assessment.

Subjects

Donepezil; QT interval; falls; syncope; torsades de pointes

Title

Management of multiligament knee injuries

Author(s)

Ng, Jimmy Wui Guan. Myint, Yulanda. Ali, Fazal M.

Year

2020

Abstract

Up to 18% of multiligament knee injuries (MLKI) have an associated vascular injury.All MLKI should be assessed using the ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) with selective arteriography if ABPI is < 0.9.An ischaemic limb following knee dislocation must be taken to the operating theatre immediately for stabilization and re-vascularization.Partial common peroneal nerve (CPN) injury following MLKI has better recovery than complete palsy.Posterior tibial tendon transfer is offered to patients with complete CPN palsy if there is no recovery at six months.Operative treatment with acute or staged reconstructions provides the best outcome in MLKI.Effective repair can only be performed within three weeks of injury.There is no difference between repair and reconstruction of medial collateral ligament and posteromedial corner.Posterolateral corner reconstruction has a lower failure rate than repair.Early mobilization following MLKI surgery results in fewer range-of-motion deficits

Subjects

knee dislocation; multiligament knee injuries

Title

Returning to work after head and neck cancer

Author(s)

Miller, Abi

Year

2020

Abstract

Purpose of review: There is a lack of evidence worldwide on return to work (RTW) in head and neck cancer (HNC), possibly because traditionally those suffering with it were typically at retirement age and survival rates were low. However, in the last 30 years, HNC survival rates have increased, resulting in more people living with the after-effects of treatment for longer, and many are of working-age. The HNC population is also changing because of a 20% increased incidence of oral and pharyngeal HNCs especially in the under 65 years of age, likely accounted for by the surge in human papilloma virus positive related HNCs.
Recent findings: The literature suggests that people who have had treatment for HNC return to work less than other cancers. The knowledge base on RTW after HNC is emergent and conclusions are currently difficult to draw. The process of returning and remaining in work is complex, affected by multiple factors and interactions. There is little evidence about work-related experiences from the perspectives of HNC survivors.
Summary: There is an urgent need for more in-depth exploration of the needs and concerns of HNC survivors returning to work after treatment, with the ultimate aim of work-related intervention development.

Subjects

Head and neck cancer; Return to work; Experiences

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