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Title

Digital database for nasal prosthesis design with a 3D morphable face model approach

Author(s)

Shaw, D.

Year

2024

Abstract

Designing nasal prostheses can be challenging because of the unpaired nature of the facial feature, especially in patients lacking preoperative information. Various nose model databases have been developed as a helpful starting point for the computer-aided design of nasal prostheses, but these do not appear to be readily accessible. Therefore, an open-access digital database of nose models has been generated based on a 3-dimensional (3D) morphable face model approach. This article describes the generation of the database, highlights steps for designing a nasal prosthesis, and points readers to the database for future clinical application and research.

Type

Article

Title

Nutritional Screening, Initial Management and Referral for Older People with Sarcopenia or Frailty - Results from a UK-Wide Survey

Author(s)

Bowler, C.; Moriarty, E.

Year

2024

Abstract

Objectives: We surveyed healthcare staff working with older people to understand current practice in nutrition screening, initial management and referral for older people with sarcopenia and frailty.

Methods: We conducted a UK-wide web-based survey of staff working with older people in both hospital and community settings. Surveys were distributed through professional organisation e-mail lists and social media channels. Descriptive data were generated from categorical responses and inductive thematic analysis was applied to free-text responses.

Results: Data were analysed from 169 respondents (110 hospital, 59 community), representing 99 healthcare organisations. 91 (83%) hospital respondents and 24 (41%) community respondents reported that nutrition screening was performed on all patients with sarcopenia or frailty. The Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool was most commonly used to trigger referral to dietetics teams, but there was considerable variation in management before referral, referral thresholds and referral pathways. Themes derived from free-text responses included the need for training, issues of responsibility and ownership, inadequate resources (time, staff and equipment) and ineffective or inefficient processes for referral and management.

Conclusions: Current UK nutritional care for older people with sarcopenia and frailty is heterogeneous. There are opportunities for better tools, processes, training and resources to improve current practice and pathways.

Type

Article

Title

Striking the balance: addressing the results of supportive work environments on stress and conflict management in emergency care

Author(s)

Sorice, V.

Year

2024

Abstract

No abstract available

Type

Article

Title

The Impact of Ferric Derisomaltose on Cardiovascular and Noncardiovascular Events in Patients With Anemia, Iron Deficiency, and Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction

Author(s)

Cooke, J.

Year

2024

Abstract

Background: In some countries, intravenous ferric derisomaltose (FDI) is only licensed for treating iron deficiency with anemia. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of intravenous FDI in a subgroup of patients with anemia in the IRONMAN (Effectiveness of Intravenous (IV) Iron Treatment Versus Standard Care in Patients With Heart Failure and Iron Deficiency) trial.

Method and results: IRONMAN enrolled patients with heart failure, a left ventricular ejection fraction of ≤45%, and iron deficiency (ferritin <100 µg/L or transferrin saturation of <20%), 771 (68%) of whom had anemia (hemoglobin <12 g/dL for women and <13 g/dL for men). Patients were randomized, open label, to FDI (n = 397) or usual care (n = 374) and followed for a median of 2.6 years. The primary end point, recurrent hospitalization for heart failure and cardiovascular death, occurred less frequently for those assigned to FDI (rate ratio 0.78, 95% confidence interval 0.61-1.01; P = .063). First event analysis for cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure, less affected by the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, gave similar results (hazard ratio 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.62-0.96; P = .022). Patients randomized to FDI reported a better Minnesota Living with Heart Failure quality of life, for overall (P = .013) and physical domain (P = .00093) scores at 4 months.

Conclusions: In patients with iron deficiency anemia and heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, intravenous FDI improves quality of life and may decrease cardiovascular events.

Type

Article

Title

Modelled impact of virtual fractional flow reserve in patients undergoing coronary angiography (VIRTU-4)

Author(s)

Cooke, J.

Year

2024

Abstract

Background: The practical application of 'virtual' (computed) fractional flow reserve (vFFR) based on invasive coronary angiogram (ICA) images is unknown. The objective of this cohort study was to investigate the potential of vFFR to guide the management of unselected patients undergoing ICA. The hypothesis was that it changes management in >10% of cases.

Methods: vFFR was computed using the Sheffield VIRTUheart system, at five hospitals in the North of England, on 'all-comers' undergoing ICA for non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and chronic coronary syndrome (CCS). The cardiologists' management plan (optimal medical therapy, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary artery bypass surgery or 'more information required') and confidence level were recorded after ICA, and again after vFFR disclosure.

Results: 517 patients were screened; 320 were recruited: 208 with ACS and 112 with CCS. The median vFFR was 0.82 (0.70-0.91). vFFR disclosure did not change the mean number of significantly stenosed vessels per patient (1.16 (±0.96) visually and 1.18 (±0.92) with vFFR (p=0.79)). A change in intended management following vFFR disclosure occurred in 22% of all patients; in the ACS cohort, there was a 62% increase in the number planned for medical management, and in the CCS cohort, there was a 31% increase in the number planned for PCI. In all patients, vFFR disclosure increased physician confidence from 8 of 10 (7.33-9) to 9 of 10 (8-10) (p<0.001).

Conclusion: The addition of vFFR to ICA changed intended management strategy in 22% of patients, provided a detailed and specific 'all-in-one' anatomical and physiological assessment of coronary artery disease, and was accompanied by augmentation of the operator's confidence in the treatment strategy.

Type

Article

Title

Intravenous iron for heart failure, iron deficiency definitions, and clinical response: the IRONMAN trial

Author(s)

Cooke, J.

Year

2024

Abstract

Background and aims: What is the relationship between blood tests for iron deficiency, including anaemia, and the response to intravenous iron in patients with heart failure?

Methods: In the IRONMAN trial, 1137 patients with heart failure, ejection fraction ≤ 45%, and either serum ferritin < 100 µg/L or transferrin saturation (TSAT) < 20% were randomized to intravenous ferric derisomaltose (FDI) or usual care. Relationships were investigated between baseline anaemia severity, ferritin and TSAT, to changes in haemoglobin from baseline to 4 months, Minnesota Living with Heart Failure (MLwHF) score and 6-minute walk distance achieved at 4 months, and clinical events, including heart failure hospitalization (recurrent) or cardiovascular death.

Results: The rise in haemoglobin after administering FDI, adjusted for usual care, was greater for lower baseline TSAT (Pinteraction < .0001) and ferritin (Pinteraction = .028) and more severe anaemia (Pinteraction = .014). MLwHF scores at 4 months were somewhat lower (better) with FDI for more anaemic patients (overall Pinteraction = .14; physical Pinteraction = .085; emotional Pinteraction = .043) but were not related to baseline TSAT or ferritin. Blood tests did not predict difference in achieved walking distance for those randomized to FDI compared to control. The absence of anaemia or a TSAT ≥ 20% was associated with lower event rates and little evidence of benefit from FDI. More severe anaemia or TSAT < 20%, especially when ferritin was ≥100 µg/L, was associated with higher event rates and greater absolute reductions in events with FDI, albeit not statistically significant.

Conclusions: This hypothesis-generating analysis suggests that anaemia or TSAT < 20% with ferritin > 100 µg/L might identify patients with heart failure who obtain greater benefit from intravenous iron. This interpretation requires confirmation.

Type

Article

Title

The impact of patient-reported frailty on cardiovascular outcomes in elderly patients after non-ST-acute coronary syndrome

Author(s)

Cooke, J.

Year

2024

Abstract

Background: As life expectancy increases, the population of older individuals with coronary artery disease and frailty is growing. We aimed to assess the impact of patient-reported frailty on the treatment and prognosis of elderly early survivors of non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS).

Methods: Frailty data were obtained from two prospective trials, POPular Age and the POPular Age Registry, which both assessed elderly NSTE-ACS patients. Frailty was assessed one month after admission with the Groningen Frailty Indicator (GFI) and was defined as a GFI-score of 4 or higher. In these early survivors of NSTE-ACS, we assessed differences in treatment and 1-year outcomes between frail and non-frail patients, considering major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, including cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, and stroke) and major bleeding.

Results: The total study population consisted of 2192 NSTE-ACS patients, aged ≥70 years. The GFI-score was available in 1320 patients (79 ± 5 years, 37% women), of whom 712 (54%) were considered frail. Frail patients were at higher risk for MACE than non-frail patients (9.7% vs. 5.1%, adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-2.43, p = 0.04), but not for major bleeding (3.7% vs. 2.8%, adjusted HR 1.23, 95% CI 0.65-2.32, p = 0.53). Cubic spline analysis showed a gradual increase of the risk for clinical outcomes with higher GFI-scores.

Conclusions: In elderly NSTE-ACS patients who survived 1-month follow-up, patient-reported frailty was independently associated with a higher risk for 1-year MACE, but not with major bleeding. These findings emphasize the importance of frailty screening for risk stratification in elderly NSTE-ACS patients.

Type

Article

Title

Handling 'carbon footprint' in orthopaedics

Author(s)

Garcia, J.; Ali, F.

Year

2024

Abstract

Introduction: The National Health Service contributes 4%-5% of England and Wales' greenhouse gases and a quarter of all public sector waste. Between 20% and 33% of healthcare waste originates from a hospital's operating room, and up to 90% of waste is sent for costly and unneeded hazardous waste processing. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount and type of waste produced during a selection of common trauma and elective orthopaedic operations, and to calculate the carbon footprint of processing the waste.

Methods: Waste generated for both elective and trauma procedures was separated primarily into clean and contaminated, paper or plastic, and then weighed. The annual carbon footprint for each operation at each site was subsequently calculated.

Results: Elective procedures can generate up to 16.5kg of plastic waste per procedure. Practices such as double-draping the patient contribute to increasing the quantity of waste. Over the procedures analysed, the mean total plastic waste at the hospital sites varied from 6 to 12kg. One hospital site undertook a pilot of switching disposable gowns for reusable ones with a subsequent reduction of 66% in the carbon footprint and a cost saving of £13,483.89.

Conclusions: This study sheds new light on the environmental impact of waste produced during trauma and elective orthopaedic procedures. Mitigating the environmental impact of the operating room requires a collective drive for a culture change to sustainability and social responsibility. Each clinician can have an impact upon the carbon footprint of their operating theatre.

Type

Article

Title

Primary mode of communication for people with total laryngectomy in the United Kingdom: a cross-sectional survey

Author(s)

Rowe, E.A.

Year

2024

Abstract

No abstract available

Type

Article

Title

Comparison of trueness and repeatability of facial prosthesis design using a 3D morphable model approach, traditional computer-aided design methods, and conventional manual sculpting techniques

Author(s)

Shaw, D.

Year

2024

Abstract

Statement of problem: Manually sculpting a wax pattern of a facial prosthesis is a time-, skill-, and resource-intensive process. Computer-aided design (CAD) methods have been proposed as a substitute for manual sculpting, but these techniques can still require high technical or artistic abilities. Three-dimensional morphable models (3DMMs) could semi-automate facial prosthesis CAD. Systematic comparisons of different design approaches are needed.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the trueness and repeatability of replacing facial features with 3 methods of facial prosthesis design involving 3DMM, traditional CAD, and conventional manual sculpting techniques.

Material and methods: Fifteen participants without facial defects were scanned with a structured light scanner. The facial meshes were manipulated to generate artificial orbital, nasal, or combined defects. Three methods of facial prosthesis design were compared for the 15 participants and repeated to produce 5 of each design for 2 participants. For the 3DMM approach, the Leeds face model informed the designs in a statistically meaningful way. For the traditional CAD methods, designs were created by using mirroring techniques or from a nose model database. For the conventional manual sculpting techniques, wax patterns were manually created on 3D printed full face baseplates. For analysis, the unedited facial feature was the standard. The unsigned distance was calculated from each of the several thousand vertices on the unedited facial feature to the closest point on the external surface of the prosthesis prototype. The mean absolute error was calculated, and a Friedman test was performed (α=.05).

Results: The median mean absolute error was 1.13 mm for the 3DMM group, 1.54 mm for the traditional CAD group, and 1.49 mm for the manual sculpting group, with no statistically significant differences among groups (P=.549). Boxplots showed substantial differences in the distribution of mean absolute error among groups, with the 3DMM group showing the greatest consistency. The 3DMM approach produced repeat designs with the lowest coefficient of variation.

Conclusions: The 3DMM approach shows potential as a semi-automated method of CAD. Further clinical research is planned to explore the 3DMM approach in a feasibility trial.

Type

Article

Title

An In Vitro Study Demonstrating the Significance of Acromioclavicular Ligament Repair in Restoring Horizontal and Rotational Acromioclavicular Joint Stability

Author(s)

France, J.; Shahane, S.; Sinha, A.; Prasad, G.

Year

2024

Abstract

Background: The principle of joint reconstruction surgery is to try to recreate the native joint biomechanics and stability. With respect to acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) surgery, much focus to date has been on restoring the superoinferior stability. There is concern that persistent horizontal instability following ACJ reconstruction could lead to poorer patient outcomes; therefore, we evaluated whether acromioclavicular (AC) ligament repair offers improved horizontal stability in conjunction with ACJ reconstruction.

Methods: A whole-body human cadaver was used. The ACJ was exposed and subjected to a constant 70N load on the lateral end of the clavicle to test the anteroposterior (AP), superoinferior (SI), and horizontal pivot angle (HPA) around the ACJ. The AC and coracoclavicular (CC) ligaments were subsequently divided, and the above three parameters were re-tested. Ligament augmentation and reconstruction system (Corin Group, Cirencester, UK), LockDown (LockDown Medical Limited, Redditch, UK), Endobutton (Smith and Nephew Inc., London, UK), and Neoligament implant (Xiros Ltd., Leeds, UK) were used to reconstruct the CC ligaments and tested with and without AC repair.

Results: The native ACJ allowed an average 2.48 mm AP and 3.88 mm SI translation with a 27° HPA. All synthetic implants significantly improved the vertical stability of the ACJ but allowed up to a four-fold increase in AP translation. Coupled with ACJ repair, all the reconstructions were far superior, especially in restoring horizontal stability.

Conclusion: The implants varied in their approach to fixation and concentrated primarily on the reconstruction of CC ligaments. Our study was able to demonstrate that AC repair significantly improves the stability of the construct and significantly reduces vertical and horizontal instability.

Type

Article

Title

The Prevention of Seroma Formation Following Modified Radical Mastectomy by Intravenous Hydrocortisone Injection

Author(s)

Shafique, M.S.

Year

2024

Abstract

Introduction Seroma formation is the most common complication after modified radical mastectomy (MRM). It leads to increased pain and discomfort, potentially prolonging morbidity and treatment. Various treatment modalities are being used to decrease the incidence of seroma formation. The objective of this study was to compare intravenous hydrocortisone injection versus placebo in patients undergoing MRM in terms of frequency of post-operative seroma formation. Methods This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted at Surgical Unit-I, Holy Family Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan from January 2021 to December 2021. A total of 152 female patients were randomly assigned to each of the study and placebo groups. Group I patients received 100 mg of hydrocortisone intravenously while group II patients received one ml of 0.9% normal saline intravenously prior to induction of general anesthesia for MRM. The incidence of seroma formation after 10 days of MRM and total drain volume till their removal was measured in all patients. Results The mean age was 48.42±10.15 in Group I, while it was 47.67±10.75 in Group II. Mean drain output till removal was 99.14±31.01 ml in the hydrocortisone group and 177.57±63.37 ml in the placebo group. Forty-eight patients developed seroma (31.58%), of whom nine received intravenous hydrocortisone and 39 received normal saline (P=0.000). Conclusion Intravenous hydrocortisone is effective in terms of frequency of post-operative seroma formation as compared to placebo in patients undergoing MRM.

Type

Article

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