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Title

Orthopaedic Examination Techniques: A Practical Guide

Author(s)

Ali, F.

Year

2022

Abstract

Orthopaedic Examination Techniques comprehensively covers the basic examination skills and key special tests needed to evaluate the adult and paediatric musculoskeletal system. Chapters are presented in a clear and logical way to allow readers to understand then master the techniques of orthopaedic clinical examination. Written by a diverse group of chapter authors with extensive experience in teaching clinical examination and who use a uniform system that is taught on national courses, every aspect of musculoskeletal examination is covered in the adult and paediatric patient. Numerous illustrations and new clinical photographs help readers to visualise and understand the key techniques, and five new chapters at the end of the book demonstrate the value of clinical examination through more than 80 clinical case examples. Easy-to-follow throughout, this book is invaluable reading for trainee orthopaedic surgeons, especially those preparing for the FRCS (Tr&Orth) postgraduate examination, practising orthopaedic surgeons, medical students, physiotherapists, and rheumatologists.

Type

Book

Title

Provision and standards of care for treatment and follow-up of patients with Autoimmune Hepatitis (AIH)

Author(s)

Elphick, D.

Year

2021

Abstract

Background: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a substantial UK health burden, but there is variation in care, facilities and in opinion regarding management. We conducted an audit of service provision and care of patients with AIH in 28 UK hospitals.

Methods: Centres provided information about staffing, infrastructure and patient management (measured against predefined guideline-based standards) via a web-based data collection tool.

Results: Hospitals (14 university hospitals (UHs), 14 district general hospitals (DGHs)) had median (range) of 8 (3-23) gastroenterologists; including 3 (0-10) hepatologists. Eight hospitals (29%, all DGHs) had no hepatologist. In individual hospital departments, there were 50% (18-100) of all consultants managing AIH: in DGH's 92% (20-100) vs 46% (17-100) in UHs. Specialist nurses managed AIH in only 18%. Seventeen (61%) hospitals had a histopathologist with a liver interest, these were more likely to find rosettes than those without (172/795 vs 50/368; p<0.001).Of 999 steroid-treated patients with ≥12 months follow-up, 25% received steroids for <12 months. After 1 year of treatment, 82% of patients achieved normal serum alanine aminotransaminase (ALT); this was higher in UHs than DGHs. Three-monthly liver blood tests were inadequately recorded in 26%. Of potentially eligible patients with liver decompensation, transplantation was apparently not considered in 5% (n=7). The same standards were attained in different types of hospital.

Conclusion: Management of AIH in UK hospitals is often shared between most gastroenterologists. Blood test monitoring and treatment duration are not always in line with recommendations. Some eligible patients with decompensation are not discussed with transplant teams. Care might be improved by expanding specialist input and management by fewer designated consultants.

Type

Article

Title

A novel removable appliance for canine retraction: a case report

Author(s)

Smorthit, K.

Year

2022

Abstract

This case report outlines the use of a modified Leighton's retractor as a method for canine retraction in a patient with severe hypodontia, a history of aggressive periodontitis with tooth loss and idiopathic root resorption affecting multiple teeth. Treatment involved an upper removable appliance in combination with a lower sectional fixed appliance with the aim of improving aesthetics and function for the patient, whilst balancing the need to minimise treatment duration and modify treatment mechanics to reduce the orthodontic risks.

Type

Article

Title

Vaginal fluid urea and creatinine, an untapped diagnostic tool for premature rupture of membranes

Author(s)

Odutola, O.S.

Year

2022

Abstract

Purpose: The diagnosis of premature rupture of membranes (PROM) can be difficult in equivocal cases. This study was designed to test the validity of vaginal fluid urea and creatinine in the diagnosis of PROM against the gold standard, the Amnisure ROM test™ METHODS: The study was a prospective observational study. All consenting eligible pregnant women between gestational ages of 28 weeks to 41 weeks + 6 days were recruited from the obstetrics emergency and antenatal clinic of the Federal medical centre, Keffi. Patients with history of drainage of liquor were recruited as the case group, and controls who match for age, parity and gestational age were recruited from the antenatal clinic to constitute the control group. Vaginal fluid aspirated was assessed in the laboratory for urea and creatinine levels and an Amnisure ROM test™ done. The sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values of vaginal fluid urea and creatinine were assessed in the diagnosis of PROM.

Results: Vaginal fluid urea and creatinine had sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), positive predictive value (PPV), respectively, of 94%, 82%, 93.18% and 83.93%, and 98%, 90%, 97.82% and 90.74%. The cutoff values for vaginal fluid urea and creatinine were 1.25 mg/dl and 0.23 mg/dl, respectively.

Conclusions: This study has found that vaginal fluid urea and creatinine are very effective tests in diagnosis of PROM. It is a cheaper and more readily available alternative to the Amnisure test. It is especially useful in our environment, especially in cases of equivocal PROM, as a cost-effective means to confirm the diagnosis.

Trial registration number (nigeria clinical trial registry): 72961653, retrospectively registered on the 2020-07-09.

Type

Article

Title

Reduced alertness as a consequence of rotating shift patterns puts safe care delivery at risk

Author(s)

Sorice, V; Russell. E.

Year

2022

Abstract

No abstract available

Type

Commentary

Title

Fetal Hand Abnormalities in the First-Trimester Scan: A Report of Two Cases

Author(s)

Tzitzikalakis, C.

Year

2022

Abstract

Two cases of fetal hand abnormalities are presented in this report. The first one is a case of unilateral fetal syndactyly detected in the first trimester routine scan, resulting in the early diagnosis of a severe genetic condition by invasive testing and early termination of pregnancy. By doing so, we ensured that the woman was managed in the most appropriate way. In the second case, we describe a fetus with bilateral hand polydactyly, which was combined with a cardiac defect - incompatible with extrauterine life. This was once again diagnosed during the first trimester scan. An uncomplicated termination of pregnancy was achieved in the first trimester of pregnancy.

Type

Article

Title

Need and Viability of Newborn Screening Programme in India: Report from a Pilot Study

Author(s)

Moorkoth, S.

Year

2022

Abstract

India, a country with the second largest population in the world, does not have a national newborn screening programme as part of its health policy. With funding support from the Grand Challenges Canada, a pilot newborn screening programme was implemented for the Udupi district of South India to study the need and viability of a national programme in India. Six disorders were selected for the study based on the availability of funding and recommendation from pediatricians in the district. Here, we report the observed incidence during the study. A cost-effectiveness analysis of implementing newborn screening in India was performed. It is evident from our analysis that the financial loss for the nation due to these preventable diseases is much higher than the overall expenditure for screening, diagnosis, and treatment. This cost-effectiveness analysis justifies the need for a national newborn screening programme in India.

Type

Article

Title

Nurses perceived institutional double standards in education and application of evidence-based practice

Author(s)

Sorice, V; Neal, A.

Year

2022

Abstract

No abstract available

Type

Commentary

Title

Treatment and Outcome of Autoimmune Hepatitis (AIH): Audit of 28 UK centres

Author(s)

Elphick, D.

Year

2022

Abstract

Background: With few data regarding treatment and outcome of patients with AIH outside of large centres we present such a study of patients with AIH in 28 UK hospitals of varying size and facilities.

Methods: Patients with AIH were identified in 14 University and 14 District General hospitals; incident cases during 2007-2015 and prevalent cases, presenting 2000-2015. Treatment and outcomes were analysed.

Results: In 1267 patients with AIH, followed-up for 3.8(0-15) years, 5- and 10-year death/transplant rates were 7.1+0.8% and 10.1+1.3% (all-cause) and 4.0+0.6% and 5.9+1% (liver-related) respectively. Baseline parameters independently associated with death/transplantation for all-causes were: older age, vascular/respiratory co-morbidity, cirrhosis, decompensation, platelet count, attending transplant centre and for liver-related: the last four of these and peak bilirubin All-cause and liver-related death/transplantation was independently associated with: non-treatment with corticosteroids, non-treatment with a steroid-sparing agent (SSA), non-treatment of asymptomatic or non-cirrhotic patients and initial dose of Prednisolone >35mg/0.5mg/kg/day (all-cause only), but not with type of steroid (Prednisolone versus Budesonide) or steroid duration beyond 12-months. Subsequent all-cause and liver-death/transplant rates showed independent associations with smaller percentage fall in serum ALT after 1 and 3-months, but not with failure to normalise levels over 12-months.

Conclusions: We observed higher death/transplant rates in patients with AIH who were untreated with steroids (including asymptomatic or non-cirrhotic sub-groups), those receiving higher Prednisolone doses and those who did not receive an SSA. Similar death/transplant rates were seen in those receiving Prednisolone or Budesonide, those continuing steroids after 12-months and patients attaining normal ALT within 12-months versus not.

Type

Article

Title

Provision and standards of care for treatment and follow-up of patients with Autoimmune Hepatitis (AIH)

Author(s)

Elphick, D.

Year

2021

Abstract

Background: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a substantial UK health burden, but there is variation in care, facilities and in opinion regarding management. We conducted an audit of service provision and care of patients with AIH in 28 UK hospitals.

Methods: Centres provided information about staffing, infrastructure and patient management (measured against predefined guideline-based standards) via a web-based data collection tool.

Results: Hospitals (14 university hospitals (UHs), 14 district general hospitals (DGHs)) had median (range) of 8 (3-23) gastroenterologists; including 3 (0-10) hepatologists. Eight hospitals (29%, all DGHs) had no hepatologist. In individual hospital departments, there were 50% (18-100) of all consultants managing AIH: in DGH's 92% (20-100) vs 46% (17-100) in UHs. Specialist nurses managed AIH in only 18%. Seventeen (61%) hospitals had a histopathologist with a liver interest, these were more likely to find rosettes than those without (172/795 vs 50/368; p<0.001).Of 999 steroid-treated patients with ≥12 months follow-up, 25% received steroids for <12 months. After 1 year of treatment, 82% of patients achieved normal serum alanine aminotransaminase (ALT); this was higher in UHs than DGHs. Three-monthly liver blood tests were inadequately recorded in 26%. Of potentially eligible patients with liver decompensation, transplantation was apparently not considered in 5% (n=7). The same standards were attained in different types of hospital.

Conclusion: Management of AIH in UK hospitals is often shared between most gastroenterologists. Blood test monitoring and treatment duration are not always in line with recommendations. Some eligible patients with decompensation are not discussed with transplant teams. Care might be improved by expanding specialist input and management by fewer designated consultants.

Type

Article

Title

Choriocarcinoma After Full-Term Pregnancy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

Author(s)

Oatham. A; Mathew, D.

Year

2022

Abstract

Choriocarcinoma is a disease associated with uncontrollable proliferation and malignant change of cells of the placenta and belongs to the malignant end of the spectrum in gestational trophoblastic disease. These tumours are usually developed after molar pregnancies, and their incidence after full-term pregnancies is extremely rare. We present a very rare case of a 30-year-old lady, admitted with a five-month history of vaginal bleeding after a normal pregnancy. The human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was at a level of 209,566. A pelvic ultrasound scan revealed an endometrial thickness of 6 cm and the presence of an intra-uterine mass measuring 56 × 50 × 45 mm. After discussion with the regional gestational trophoblastic disease centre, we proceeded to a surgical evacuation of the uterus, which confirmed a post-partum choriocarcinoma (International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) score 9). Care was continued in the specialised centre with multi-agent chemotherapy. The response was excellent, and the patient was subsequently discharged after 10 cycles of chemotherapy, and a 10-year follow-up was arranged. Choriocarcinomas after full-term pregnancies are a rare entity. Even when they happen, they are usually associated with pregnancy complications in the ante-natal period. The prognosis is usually very good, provided that prompt diagnosis and referral to a specialised centre are made. Low-risk patients are usually treated with methotrexate monotherapy, whereas high-risk women would normally require multi-agent chemotherapy. The diagnosis of choriocarcinoma might be proven challenging even for experienced clinicians. Women should be informed that the prognosis is usually excellent, provided that they receive the right treatment.

Type

Article

Title

Patient support groups: A survey of United Kingdom practice, purpose and performance

Author(s)

Groves, J.

Year

2021

Abstract

Background: Critical care survivors face physical, psychological and socio-economic burdens. Peer support is acknowledged as a way individuals can face, accept and overcome the challenges arising from a stressful event. We sought to examine the provision and benefits of peer support to critical care survivors in the UK.

Method: We distributed a survey, devised by the patients and relatives committee of the Intensive Care Society and ICUsteps, to contacts in 163 UK Trusts/hospitals with critical care departments. The benefit to individuals was assessed by seeking the views of attendees of two support groups.

Results: A response was received from 91 (56%) of the critical care departments. Of these, 46 (48% of respondents) have patient support groups. Our analysis of comments from 30 people is that support groups greatly benefit service users and staff.

Conclusions: Attendees of patient support groups gave highly positive comments about the service yet provision of patient support groups in the UK is not universal.

Recommendations: We make a series of recommendations for consideration by UK health care providers.

Type

Article