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Title

The Prevention of Seroma Formation Following Modified Radical Mastectomy by Intravenous Hydrocortisone Injection

Author(s)

Shafique, M. S.

Year

2024

Abstract

Introduction Seroma formation is the most common complication after modified radical mastectomy (MRM). It leads to increased pain and discomfort, potentially prolonging morbidity and treatment. Various treatment modalities are being used to decrease the incidence of seroma formation. The objective of this study was to compare intravenous hydrocortisone injection versus placebo in patients undergoing MRM in terms of frequency of post-operative seroma formation. Methods This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted at Surgical Unit-I, Holy Family Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan from January 2021 to December 2021. A total of 152 female patients were randomly assigned to each of the study and placebo groups. Group I patients received 100 mg of hydrocortisone intravenously while group II patients received one ml of 0.9% normal saline intravenously prior to induction of general anesthesia for MRM. The incidence of seroma formation after 10 days of MRM and total drain volume till their removal was measured in all patients. Results The mean age was 48.42±10.15 in Group I, while it was 47.67±10.75 in Group II. Mean drain output till removal was 99.14±31.01 ml in the hydrocortisone group and 177.57±63.37 ml in the placebo group. Forty-eight patients developed seroma (31.58%), of whom nine received intravenous hydrocortisone and 39 received normal saline (P=0.000). Conclusion Intravenous hydrocortisone is effective in terms of frequency of post-operative seroma formation as compared to placebo in patients undergoing MRM.

Type

Article

Title

Are Horizontal Fusional Vergences Comparable When Measured Using a Prism Bar and Synoptophore?

Author(s)

Haque, S.

Year

2024

Abstract

Aim: To determine whether horizontal fusional vergences are comparable when measured using a prism bar and synoptophore.

Methods: Thirty two participants (18-23 years) had their blur, break, and recovery points measured for convergence and divergence amplitudes using a prism bar (6 m) and synoptophore. All participants had VA of 0.1 LogMAR or better in either eye, were heterophoric or orthophoric and had binocular single vision. The prism bar target was a 0.2 LogMAR letter. The synoptophore target was the foveal 'rabbit' fusion slides. The prism bar was placed over the dominant eye and the testing speed was two seconds per two prism dioptres (Δ), increasing to five seconds per 5Δ when the increments began to increase in 5Δ. Synoptophore testing speed was two seconds per degree.

Results: The synoptophore measured significantly higher convergence break points than the prism bar (Z = 3.37, p = 0.001). No significant differences were found between both tests for divergence break points (Z = 0.99, p = 0.32). However, both tests displayed wide limits of agreement (LoA) when measuring convergence (-24Δ to + 49.59Δ) and divergence break points (-7.70Δ to + 10.19Δ). Differences when measuring convergence and divergence blur and recovery points were not statistically significant.

Conclusion: There was a statistically and clinically significant difference when measuring convergence break points using the prism bar and synoptophore but no significant difference when measuring divergence break points. However, both tests displayed wide LoA when measuring convergence and divergence break points, indicating they should not be used interchangeably in clinic to measure horizontal fusional vergences.

Type

Article

Title

Can an educational video improve the adequacy of bowel preparation for patients undergoing their first colonoscopy? Results of the EBOPS RCT

Author(s)

Dear, K.

Year

2024

Abstract

Background and study aims The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an educational video on the quality of bowel preparation of patients from a UK population attending for their first colonoscopy. Patients and methods A prospective, endoscopist-blinded trial with 1:1 allocation was performed. Patients referred for their first colonoscopy were recruited between February 2019 and December 2019. All participants were prescribed Moviprep and received the trial site's standard written bowel preparation instructions, with the intervention group also receiving a bespoke educational video. Adequacy of bowel preparation (defined as a Boston Bowel Preparation Scale of ≥2 in each segment of the bowel) and polyp detection rates (PDRs) were compared. Fisher's chi squared test was utilized with P <0.05 as the threshold for significance. Results A total of 509 participants completed the trial from six centers; 251 were randomized to the intervention group. The mean age was 57 years and 52.3% were female. The primary endpoint was met with an adequacy rate of 216 of 251 (86.1%) in the intervention group, compared with 205 of 259 (79.1%) in the control group ( P <0.05, odds ratio [OR] 1.626, 95% CI 1.017-2.614). The PDR was significantly higher in the intervention group (39% vs 30%, OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.04-2.19, P <0.05). Conclusions An educational video leads to improved bowel preparation for patients attending for their first colonoscopy, and is also associated with greater detection of polyps. Widespread adoption of an educational video incurs minimal investment, but would reduce the number of inadequate procedures, missed pathology, and the cost that both these incur.

Type

Article

Title

Venetoclax Initiation in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: International Insights and Innovative Approaches for Optimal Patient Care

Author(s)

Smith, M.

Year

2024

Abstract

Venetoclax, a highly selective, oral B-cell lymphoma 2 inhibitor, provides a robust targeted-therapy option for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), including patients with high-risk del(17p)/mutated-TP53 and immunoglobulin heavy variable region unmutated CLL and those refractory to chemoimmunotherapy across all age groups. Due to the potent pro-apoptotic effect of venetoclax, treatment initiation carries a risk of tumor lysis syndrome (TLS). Prompt and appropriate management is needed to limit clinical TLS, which may entail serious adverse events and death. Venetoclax ramp-up involves gradual, stepwise increases in daily venetoclax dosing from 20 mg to 400 mg (target dose) over 5 weeks; adherence to on-label scheduling provides a tumor debulking phase, reducing the risk of TLS. The key components of safe venetoclax therapy involve assessment (radiographic evaluation and baseline blood chemistry), preparation (adequate hydration), and initiation (blood chemistry monitoring). In addition to summarizing the evidence for venetoclax's efficacy and safety, this review uses hypothetical patient scenarios based on risk level for TLS (high, medium, low) to share the authors' clinical experience with venetoclax initiation and present global approaches utilized in various treatment settings. These hypothetical scenarios highlight the importance of a multidisciplinary approach and shared decision-making, outlining best practices for venetoclax initiation and overall optimal treatment strategies in patients with CLL.

Type

Article

Title

The impact of patient-reported frailty on cardiovascular outcomes in elderly patients after non-ST-acute coronary syndrome

Author(s)

Cooke, J.

Year

2024

Abstract

Background: As life expectancy increases, the population of older individuals with coronary artery disease and frailty is growing. We aimed to assess the impact of patient-reported frailty on the treatment and prognosis of elderly early survivors of non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS).

Methods: Frailty data were obtained from two prospective trials, POPular Age and the POPular Age Registry, which both assessed elderly NSTE-ACS patients. Frailty was assessed one month after admission with the Groningen Frailty Indicator (GFI) and was defined as a GFI-score of 4 or higher. In these early survivors of NSTE-ACS, we assessed differences in treatment and 1-year outcomes between frail and non-frail patients, considering major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, including cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, and stroke) and major bleeding.

Results: The total study population consisted of 2192 NSTE-ACS patients, aged ≥70 years. The GFI-score was available in 1320 patients (79 ± 5 years, 37% women), of whom 712 (54%) were considered frail. Frail patients were at higher risk for MACE than non-frail patients (9.7% vs. 5.1%, adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-2.43, p = 0.04), but not for major bleeding (3.7% vs. 2.8%, adjusted HR 1.23, 95% CI 0.65-2.32, p = 0.53). Cubic spline analysis showed a gradual increase of the risk for clinical outcomes with higher GFI-scores.

Conclusions: In elderly NSTE-ACS patients who survived 1-month follow-up, patient-reported frailty was independently associated with a higher risk for 1-year MACE, but not with major bleeding. These findings emphasize the importance of frailty screening for risk stratification in elderly NSTE-ACS patients.

Type

Article

Title

Intravenous iron for heart failure, iron deficiency definitions, and clinical response: the IRONMAN trial

Author(s)

Cooke, J.

Year

2024

Abstract

Background and aims: What is the relationship between blood tests for iron deficiency, including anaemia, and the response to intravenous iron in patients with heart failure?

Methods: In the IRONMAN trial, 1137 patients with heart failure, ejection fraction ≤ 45%, and either serum ferritin < 100 µg/L or transferrin saturation (TSAT) < 20% were randomized to intravenous ferric derisomaltose (FDI) or usual care. Relationships were investigated between baseline anaemia severity, ferritin and TSAT, to changes in haemoglobin from baseline to 4 months, Minnesota Living with Heart Failure (MLwHF) score and 6-minute walk distance achieved at 4 months, and clinical events, including heart failure hospitalization (recurrent) or cardiovascular death.

Results: The rise in haemoglobin after administering FDI, adjusted for usual care, was greater for lower baseline TSAT (Pinteraction < .0001) and ferritin (Pinteraction = .028) and more severe anaemia (Pinteraction = .014). MLwHF scores at 4 months were somewhat lower (better) with FDI for more anaemic patients (overall Pinteraction = .14; physical Pinteraction = .085; emotional Pinteraction = .043) but were not related to baseline TSAT or ferritin. Blood tests did not predict difference in achieved walking distance for those randomized to FDI compared to control. The absence of anaemia or a TSAT ≥ 20% was associated with lower event rates and little evidence of benefit from FDI. More severe anaemia or TSAT < 20%, especially when ferritin was ≥100 µg/L, was associated with higher event rates and greater absolute reductions in events with FDI, albeit not statistically significant.

Conclusions: This hypothesis-generating analysis suggests that anaemia or TSAT < 20% with ferritin > 100 µg/L might identify patients with heart failure who obtain greater benefit from intravenous iron. This interpretation requires confirmation.

Type

Article

Title

Health-related Quality of Life in Idiopathic Toe Walkers: A Multicenter Prospective Cross-sectional Study

Author(s)

Harris, J.

Year

2024

Abstract

Objective: Despite idiopathic toe walking (ITW) being a significant source of stress and anxiety for children and parents alike, little is known about the effect on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The primary research question for this study was "Is ITW associated with impaired HRQoL, and is the degree of equinus contracture related to the degree of impairment?"

Methods: Twelve pediatric orthopaedic centers across the United Kingdom participated in this prospective, cross-sectional observational study of children younger than 18 years with ITW. Data were collected between May 2022 and July 2022. Using a standardized, piloted proforma, data collected included: demographics, toe-walking duration, passive ankle range of motion (Silfverskiold test), associated autism spectrum disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, previous and planned treatments, and Oxford Ankle Foot Questionnaire for Children scores. Domain scores were compared with a healthy control group and correlation was made to plantarflexion contracture using standard nonparametric statistical methods.

Results: Data were collected from 157 children. Significant reductions in physical, school and play, and emotional domain scores were noted compared with healthy controls. A significant moderate correlation was noted between passive ankle dorsiflexion and physical domain scores. There were no significant differences in Oxford Ankle Foot Questionnaire for Children scores among patient groups by treatment.

Conclusions: ITW in children is associated with an impairment in HRQoL, not only across the physical domain but also the school and play and emotional domains. The more severe the equinus contracture, the worse the physical domain scores.

Type

Article

Title

Health-related quality of life after a diagnosis of bladder cancer: a longitudinal survey over the first year

Author(s)

Pritchard, K.

Year

2024

Abstract

Objectives: To describe the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients in a prospective 12-month observational cohort study of new bladder cancer diagnoses and compare with national cancer and general population surveys.

Patients and methods: A prospective UK study in patients with new bladder cancer diagnoses at 13 NHS Trusts. The HRQoL data were collected at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Questionnaires used included: the EuroQoL five Dimensions (EQ-5D), European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life questionnaire (EORTC QLQ)-30-item core, EORTC QLQ-24-item non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer, and EORTC QLQ-30-item muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Results were compared with the Cancer Quality of Life Survey and Health Survey for England.

Results: A total of 349 patients were recruited, 296 (85%) completed the first (baseline) and 233 (67%) the final survey. The patients underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) ± intravesical therapy (238 patients, 80%), radical cystectomy/radiotherapy (51, 17%) or palliation (seven, 2%). At baseline, patients needing radical treatment reported worse HRQoL including lower social function (74.2 vs 83.8, P = 0.002), increased fatigue (31.5 vs 26.1, P = 0.03) and more future worries (39.2 vs 29.4, P = 0.005) than patients who underwent TURBT. Post-treatment surveys showed no change/improvements for patients who underwent TURBT but deterioration for the radically treated cohort. At final survey, reports were similar to baseline, regardless of treatment. Radically treated patients continued to report poorer HRQoL including issues with body image (23.4 vs 12.5, P = 0.007) and male sexual function (75.8 vs 40.4, P < 0.001) compared to those who underwent TURBT. Radically treated patients reported lower EQ-5D utility scores and more problems with usual activities than the general population.

Discussion: Patients undergoing TURBT can be reassured regarding HRQoL following treatment. However, those requiring radical treatment report greater changes in HRQoL with the need for appropriate clinical and supportive care to minimise the impact of treatments.

Type

Article

Title

Isolated pulmonary hemorrhage after electric shock: a rare phenomenon

Author(s)

Singh, P. K.

Year

2024

Abstract

Any type of contact with electricity of low or high voltage can cause injury to the human body, with a variable effect on the body. Low-voltage injury is quite common worldwide, but there is very little information present in the available literature. The degree of organ damage depends on many factors, which include the duration of electric current exposure, current type, and nature of the affected tissue. The most common presentations are muscle injury, hyperkalemia, pulmonary edema, and rarely isolated diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage. We present a case of bilateral pulmonary hemorrhage due to electric shock with no visible signs of damage to the chest wall when exposed to a 220 V shock. The diagnosis was confirmed by fresh hemoptysis, chest imaging that showed bilateral perihilar ground glass opacities, and bronchoscopy findings. Given a life-threatening condition, a timely diagnosis is required, as massive hemoptysis can occlude the airways, leading to hypoxia and mortality.

Type

Case Reports

Title

Fast screening using attenuated total reflectance- fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy of patients based on D-dimer threshold value

Author(s)

Singh, M . N.

Year

2024

Abstract

Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy is an emerging technology in the medical field. Blood D-dimer was initially studied as a marker of the activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis. It is mainly used as a potential diagnosis screening test for pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis but was recently associated with COVID-19 severity. This study aimed to evaluate the use of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy with machine learning to classify plasma D-dimer concentrations. The plasma ATR-FTIR spectra from 100 patients were studied through principal component analysis (PCA) and two supervised approaches: genetic algorithm with linear discriminant analysis (GA-LDA) and partial least squares with linear discriminant (PLS-DA). The spectra were truncated to the fingerprint region (1800-1000 cm-1). The GA-LDA method effectively classified patients according to D-dimer cutoff (≤0.5 μg/mL and >0.5 μg/mL) with 87.5 % specificity and 100 % sensitivity on the training set, and 85.7 % specificity, and 95.6 % sensitivity on the test set. Thus, we demonstrate that ATR-FTIR spectroscopy might be an important additional tool for classifying patients according to D-dimer values. ATR-FTIR spectral analyses associated with clinical evidence can contribute to a faster and more accurate medical diagnosis, reduce patient morbidity, and save resources and demand for professionals.

Type

Article

Title

Serum-based ATR-FTIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis for the diagnosis of pre-diabetes and diabetes

Author(s)

Singh, M. N.

Year

2024

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease with an increasing prevalence that is causing worldwide concern. The pre-diabetes stage is the only reversible stage in the patho-physiological process towards DM. Due to the limitations of traditional methods, the diagnosis and detection of DM and pre-diabetes are complicated, expensive, and time-consuming. Therefore, it would be of great benefit to develop a simple, rapid and inexpensive diagnostic test. Herein, the infrared (IR) spectra of serum samples from 111 DM patients, 111 pre-diabetes patients and 333 healthy volunteers were collected using attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform IR (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and this was combined with the multivariate analysis of principal component analysis linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) to develop a discriminant model to verify the diagnostic potential of this approach. The study found that the accuracy of the test model established by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy combined with PCA-LDA was 97%, and the sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 100% in the control group, 94% and 98% in the pre-diabetes group, and 91% and 98% in the DM group, respectively. This indicates that this method can effectively diagnose DM and pre-diabetes, which has far-reaching clinical significance.

Type

Title

Near-Infrared Spectroscopy with Supervised Machine Learning as a Screening Tool for Neutropenia

Author(s)

Singh, M. S.

Year

2023

Abstract

The use of non-invasive tools in conjunction with artificial intelligence (AI) to detect diseases has the potential to revolutionize healthcare. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) is a technology that can be used to analyze biological samples in a non-invasive manner. This study evaluated the use of NIR spectroscopy in the fingertip to detect neutropenia in solid-tumor oncologic patients. A total of 75 patients were enrolled in the study. Fingertip NIR spectra and complete blood counts were collected from each patient. The NIR spectra were pre-processed using Savitzky-Golay smoothing and outlier detection. The pre-processed data were split into training/validation and test sets using the Kennard-Stone method. A toolbox of supervised machine learning classification algorithms was applied to the training/validation set using a stratified 5-fold cross-validation regimen. The algorithms included linear discriminant analysis (LDA), logistic regression (LR), random forest (RF), multilayer perceptron (MLP), and support vector machines (SVMs). The SVM model performed best in the validation step, with 85% sensitivity, 89% negative predictive value (NPV), and 64% accuracy. The SVM model showed 67% sensitivity, 82% NPV, and 57% accuracy on the test set. These results suggest that NIR spectroscopy in the fingertip, combined with machine learning methods, can be used to detect neutropenia in solid-tumor oncology patients in a non-invasive and timely manner. This approach could help reduce exposure to invasive tests and prevent neutropenic patients from inadvertently undergoing chemotherapy.

Type

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